Shingles is a disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus, the herpes virus responsible for chickenpox. Once an individual has been infected with chickenpox, this virus lies dormant within the body's nerve tissue. Years later, the virus may reactivate as shingles, often after another illness or during a period of great stress. Advancing age and immune deficiency disorders are also risk factors for shingles. Shingles most commonly presents as a painful rash of fluid-filled blisters wrapping around the back and chest, typically affecting only one side of the body. It is possible, however, for patients to have shingles with only a very mild rash or even no rash at all. Early treatment for shingles may minimize symptoms and prevent complications.
Symptoms of Shingles
Since shingles affect the nerves, patients may experience a wide variety of sensations at the affected site, including:
- Shooting pain
Additional symptoms of the disorder may include headache, fever, fatigue and body aches. The shingles rash usually lasts for several weeks to as much as a month. For most individuals, the pain lessens as the rash heals. Some patients, however, experience long-term nerve pain after a case of shingles, pain which may linger for more than a year.
Diagnosis of Shingles
Shingles is commonly diagnosed through an examination of the rash and a review of the patient's symptoms. If blisters are present at the time of the examination, the doctor may take a sample of fluid for a laboratory culture.
Treatment of Shingles
Treatment of shingles usually consists of the use of analgesics and antiviral medications. Antiviral medications may include:
- Acyclovir (Zovirax)
- Valacyclovir (Valtrex)
- Famciclovir (Famvir)
Since shingles may cause significant pain and discomfort, the following medications may also be recommended to relieve painful symptoms:
- Capsaicin cream
- Lidocaine ointment
- Tricyclic antidepressants
- Corticosteroid and local anesthetic injections
While shingles is not a life-threatening disease, it can be extremely painful and interfere greatly with normal activities and quality of life. A shingles vaccine is now available and recommended for individuals age 60 and older. While not preventative of the reactivation of the shingles virus in all cases, it has been demonstrated to greatly reduce the risk of an outbreak, as well as to lessen the severity of the disease should it occur.